Every Child Lifeline Newsletter, Vol.1

Published May 20, 2019 by paulandpaulasbooks

The Every Child Lifeline Charity Foundation is to facilitate orphanages throughout the world starting with groundbreaking in Nigeria.  Please visit our Facebook page, Every Child Lifeline Charity Foundation

Donation link to Every Child lifeline Charity Foundation

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DOWN TRENDING EVEN ON AFRICAN MONTH CELEBRATIONS

The Month of May is celebrated globally to mark the ‘scramble of Africa’ by numerous European countries since 1855. This period otherwise referred to as the ‘Era of Imperialism’ saw European countries tearing Africa apart like birds and bees perching wildflowers in search of nectarine.

The era as described by an erstwhile writer of Russian origin, Conquery Vidrovich marked the creation of world poverty. In the same breath a radical Walter Rodney, development study guru ascribed to this era, the underdevelopment of Africa by Europe.

The object of this publication is in no way an attempt to unbundle historical baggage, but rather to a reasonably objective appraisal of the problem of child neglect, abuse, and abandonment through time. Obviously, and inevitably such an assessment will have to shed light on the impact the various historical milestones development stages impacted the child.

Professor Ali Mazrui has written in a string of academic publications on the transatlantic slave trade and colonialism how the African family structures were violently and grossly shaken to the ground.

In the era of the territorial imperative, the West docked the slave ships away forever and launched the gunboats in their place. This was the era of imperialism and gunboat diplomacy. Whatever happens, we have got the maxim and they have not! The West stopped exporting Africa’s sons and daughters and colonized Africa itself. Imperialism and gunboat diplomacy was part of the ugly side of globalization. Raw materials for Western manufacturing industries became a major temptation. In the same breath, Bede Eke of Nigeria explained in his Doctoral thesis on ‘Intergenerational Impact of AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria that the advent of colonialism in the 19th century, the wave of modernization, and the new idea of nuclear family systems, intergenerational bonds and relationships were weakened to an extent. But the arrival of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and its steady increase worsened the situation. Intergenerational relationships have been affected to the extent that bonds between generations are collapsing. The resultant social isolation and stigmatization of the affected and infected compounded the problem of Orphan Vulnerable Children (OVC).

Donation link to Every Child Lifeline Charity Foundation

 

AFRICA’S RESPONSE POST-COLONIALISM

Are we breaking the ground?

A simple straight-forward answer to the question is simply negative – Not at all. If research is anything to go by, current statistics suggest a horrifying figure so astronomical that it becomes even more than eyebrow-raising. It is estimated that in Africa as a whole a child becomes an Orphan Vulnerable Child (OVC) every 15 seconds which translates into four children every minute and about two-hundred and forty every hour (240) and 5760 daily. Even the negative stabilizing factors of infant, child, and adult mortality rate does not have an impact. To assess the validity of this figures, one has to look at the life expectancy rate of African countries which is comparatively very low, for instance, South Africa is at 54 while Nigeria is at 47.

Nigeria defines an orphan as a child (0-17 years) who have lost one or both parents. A child is vulnerable if, because of the circumstances of birth or immediate environment, is prone to abuse or deprivation of basic needs, care and protection and thus disadvantaged relative to his or her peers (FMWA&SD 2008). A vulnerable child is one (that): with inadequate access to education, health and other social support, has a chronically ill parent, lives in a household with terminally or chronically ill parent(s) or caregiver(s), lives outside of family care (lives with extended family, in institution, or on street), is infected with HIV (FMWA&SD 2006). The list of categories of OVC is long and varied; in addition to the above, a vulnerable child includes: children in need of alternative family care; children who are abused or neglected; children in hard-to-reach areas; children with disability-related vulnerability; children affected by armed conflict; and children in need of legal protection (FMWA&SD 2007). The FMWA&SD also gives a list of children perceived to be ‘extremely vulnerable’ in communities (Figure 1), derived from consultations with stakeholders:

Figure 1: Categories of vulnerable children as perceived by communities, National Plan of Action 2006 – 2010 – Children with physical and mental disabilities

– Sexually abused children

– Neglected children

– Children in conflict with the law

– Exploited “Alamgir”

– Child beggars, destitute children, and scavengers

– Children from broken homes

– Child sex workers

– Children whose parents have a disability

– Children who marry before the age of 18

– Children who have dropped out of school

– Abandoned children

– Children living with terminally or chronically ill parent(s) and

caregiver(s)

– Child laborers

– Children in child-headed homes

– Internally displaced children

– Children hawkers

– Trafficked children

– Children of migrant workers such as fishermen, nomads

– Children living with HIV

– Children living with aged/frail grandparents (TO BE CONTINUED IN THE NEXT ISSUE)

Author: Tshengwane Jeremia Bokaba

AFRICA’S RESPONSE POST-COLONIALISM

Are we breaking the ground?

A simple straight-forward answer to the question is simply negative – Not at all. If research is anything to go by, current statistics suggest a horrifying figure so astronomical that it becomes even more than eyebrow-raising. It is estimated that in Africa as a whole a child becomes an Orphan Vulnerable Child (OVC) every 15 seconds which translates into four children every minute and about two-hundred and forty every hour (240) and 5760 daily. Even the negative stabilizing factors of infant, child, and adult mortality rate does not have an impact. To assess the validity of this figures, one has to look at the life expectancy rate of African countries which is comparatively very low, for instance, South Africa is at 54 while Nigeria is at 47.

Nigeria defines an orphan as a child (0-17 years) who have lost one or both parents. A child is vulnerable if, because of the circumstances of birth or immediate environment, is prone to abuse or deprivation of basic needs, care and protection and thus disadvantaged relative to his or her peers (FMWA&SD 2008). A vulnerable child is one (that): with inadequate access to education, health and other social support, has a chronically ill parent, lives in a household with terminally or chronically ill parent(s) or caregiver(s), lives outside of family care (lives with extended family, an institution, or on street), is infected with HIV (FMWA&SD 2006). The list of categories of OVC is long and varied; in addition to the above, a vulnerable child includes: children in need of alternative family care; children who are abused or neglected; children in hard-to-reach areas; children with disability-related vulnerability; children affected by armed conflict; and children in need of legal protection (FMWA&SD 2007). The FMWA&SD also gives a list of children perceived to be ‘extremely vulnerable’ in communities (Figure 1), derived from consultations with stakeholders:

Figure 1: Categories of vulnerable children as perceived by communities, National Plan of Action 2006 – 2010 – Children with physical and mental disabilities

– Sexually abused children

– Neglected children

– Children in conflict with the law

– Exploited “Alamgir”

– Child beggars, destitute children and scavengers

– Children from broken homes

– Child sex workers

– Children whose parents have a disability

– Children who marry before the age of 18

– Children who have dropped out of school

– Abandoned children

– Children living with terminally or chronically ill parent(s) and

caregiver(s)

– Child laborers

– Children in child-headed homes

– Internally displaced children

– Children hawkers

– Trafficked children

– Children of migrant workers such as fishermen, nomads

– Children living with HIV

– Children living with aged/frail grandparents (TO BE CONTINUED IN THE NEXT ISSUE)

Author: Tshengwane Jeremia Bokaba

Donations to Every Child Lifeline Charity Foundation link

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalized/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict, and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalized settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence, and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalized care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly, any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalized care. With a violence lens, a cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalized/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict, and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalized settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence, and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalized care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalized care. With a violence lens, a cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalized

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalization. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalized children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placed out of the institutions which show benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence, and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalized placements in the first place)

seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtesy of the Commons who hold the copyright of the material and may

not be used for commercial purposes.

Donation Link Every Child Lifeline Charity Foundation

 

 

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

Guest Column

Child violence experiences in institutionalised/

orphanage care

Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J. Roberts & Natasha Gandhi

ABSTRACT

Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children.

In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and

disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some

countries have closed institutions down driven by findings that

cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care.

Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is

neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This

systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in

institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence

in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or

abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse. The final

systematic review updates the findings on cognitive delay associated

with institutionalised care. With a violence lens, cognitive delay may well be considered under the umbrella of neglect. Maltreatment

and abuse may be a driver of cognitive delay. The keyword search covered several electronic databases and studies were included for

data abstraction if they met adequacy criteria. Eight studies were

identified on the prevalence of abuse in institutions and a further

three studies reported on interventions. Only one study was identified

documenting peer on peer violence in institutions. Sixty-six studies

were identified examining cognitive development for institutionalised

children. All but two of these record cognitive deficits associated with

institutionalisation. Only two asked about violence or abuse which

was found to be higher in institutionalised children. Overall the abuse

experiences of children in institutions are poorly recorded, and in one

study violence was associated with high suicidal attempts. The major

intervention pathway for ameliorating cognitive challenge seems

to be placement out of the institutions which shows benefits and

redresses some cognitive outcomes – yet not a total panacea. The

single study providing training and monitoring of harsh punishment

and maltreatment showed immediate and decided reductions. This

data suggest, despite the paucity of studies, violence and abuse, by

commission or omission is prevalent in institutions, influences

child well-being and is amenable to intervention. Simple training

or more complex structures to place children within conducive

alternative environments (or to avoid institutionalised placements in the first place) seem to be the main pathway of intervention.

Published with courtersy of the Commons who hold copyright of the material and may not be uesd for commercial purposes.

 

 

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